1. Cummins, S., M. Stafford, S. Macintyre, M. Marmot, and A. Ellaway. “Neighbourhood environment and its association with self-rated health: evidence from Scotland and England.” Journal of Epidemiology and Community Health 59, no. 3 (March 2005): 207–213.
2. Kim, Daniel, and Ichiro Kawachi. “A multilevel analysis of key forms of community- and individual-level social capital as predictors of self-rated health in the United States.” Journal of Urban Health-Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine 83, no. 5 (September 2006): 813–826.
Stretch versions: The basic version of the voter participation data will be for precincts. The “stretch” version would be to geocode the addresses and create census-tract level indicators.
The Voter Participation indicator measures the proportion of voting eligible residents (i.e., over 18 years old, citizens, and, depending on the state, non-felons) who voted in the last election. It is an important indicator of community engagement, civic pride, and social capital. Community engagement and social cohesion are linked to factors such as social support systems, which impact health outcomes. Individuals who participate in elections have been found less likely to report poor/fair health; conversely, where political engagement is low, studies show that people had higher odds of reporting poor health. Also, individuals who exercise their right to vote play a role in selecting public officials and referendums that can impact local economic health, education, and health systems and public safety. Voting data is extracted from the Jefferson County Board of Registrar’s Office.