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2. McKee-Ryan, Frances, et al. “Psychological and physical well-being during unemployment (2005). Journal of Applied Psychology.
3. Morris, J.K., et al. “Loss of employment and mortality” (1994). British Medical Journal.
4. Paul, Karsten I. and Klaus Moser. “Unemployment impairs mental health: Meta-analyses” (2009). Journal of Vocational Behavior.
5. Virtanen, Marianna, et al. “Temporary employment and health: a review” (2005). International Journal of Epidemiology.
The Employment Rate indicator measures the proportion of working age population (i.e., residents aged 16 through 64) who are currently employed. It is an important indicator of economic well-being and access to health promoting resources. For example, employment increases access to health insurance coverage, and job loss often means the loss of health insurance. Studies show that employment is associated with better physical well-being and self-esteem, and a lower likelihood of mortality and psychological problems, such as distress, depression, and anxiety. Re-employment after a long period of unemployment is also associated with improved mental health. Employment ties individuals to social institutions that are important for health, and reduces suicide rates, homicides, and cardiovascular mortality. Although found in the Employment Opportunities domain, the Employment Rate indicator also influences, or is influenced by, the Housing, Economic Health, and Educational Opportunities domains. The Employment Rate indicator is extracted from the U.S. Census.