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Racial and Ethnic Diversity
The Racial and Ethnic Diversity indicator measures the degree to which racial and/or ethnic groups are dispersed throughout the City's neighborhoods. The U.S. population reflects growing racial and ethnic diversity, however the distribution of racial and ethnic groups is not evenly distributed throughout the country. This spatial characteristic is a truism within cities as well, and it is a vestige of historical policies, both formal and informal. A measure of racial and ethnic diversity is used to determine the erosion of past policies, both de facto and de jure. Furthermore, residents who live in hyper-segregated neighborhoods have fewer assets and resources such as quality schools, public transportation, and fresh grocers. Segregated low-income neighborhoods are more likely to face environmental injustices such as solid and hazardous waste sites and noise and toxic air pollution. Since racial segregation is also a proxy of class segregation, neighborhoods with a higher concentration of racial/ethnic minorities often report extreme material and relative deprivation, too. Hyper-segregated neighborhoods also report worse rates of chronic and acute diseases, civic participation, and community trust. The scores for the Racial and Ethnic Diversity indicator are calculated using the Simpson Diversity Index and U.S. Census data. A higher index score indicates greater diversity.