1. Gruenewald, Paul J. et al. “Ecological models of alcohol outlets and violent assaults: crime potentials and geospatial analysis” (2006). Addiction.
2. Cohen, Deborah A. et al. “Alcohol outlets, gonorrhea, and the Los Angeles civil unrest: A longitudinal analysis” (2006). Social Science and Medicine.
3. La Viest, Thomas A. and John M. Wallace Jr. “Health risk and inequitable distribution of liquor stores in African American neighborhood” (2000). Social Science and Medicine.
Offsite Alcohol Outlets
The Off-Site Alcohol Outlets indicator measures the number of stores selling alcohol for “off-site” consumption per 1,000 people. A high number of liquor stores is often an indication of a problem in a neighborhood. Ecological studies have consistently found a link between alcohol outlet density (AOD), typically defined as the number of alcohol outlets per capita, and an increased risk of many alcohol-related harms such as interpersonal violence, motor vehicle accidents, and sexually transmitted infections. Census tracts that are both low income and predominantly minority tend to have substantially more liquor stores per capita. Research has shown that predominantly black, low-income neighborhoods were eight times more likely to have carry-out liquor stores than white or racially integrated neighborhoods. Studies show there are significant associations between the presence of liquor stores and assault rates, gonorrhea, and the risk of other health-related social problems in low-income neighborhoods. In addition to its influence on the Neighborhood Characteristics domain, the Off-site Alcohol Outlets indicator impacts the Economic Health, Health Systems and Public Safety, Educational Opportunities, Social Cohesion, and Employment Opportunities domains. Data for this measure is derived from InfoGroup, Inc.