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The Reading Proficiency indicator measures the proportion of students at either the third or fourth grade with the ability to read at, or above, their grade level. By 3 years of age, there is a 30 million-word gap between children from the wealthiest and poorest families. Additionally, 34% of children entering kindergarten lack the basic language skills needed to learn how to read. That is why children with high reading levels by fourth grade are more likely to graduate from high school and have better health as they get older. High reading proficiency has been linked to a reduction in alcohol abuse, violence, diabetes, retinopathy, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, hospitalization, HIV, cancer, and asthma. Although featured in the Educational Opportunities domain, the Reading Proficiency indicator is also tied to the Employment Opportunities, Economic Health, Social Cohesion, Health Systems and Public Safety, and Neighborhood Characteristics domains. The Preschool Enrollment indicator is calculated from the Alabama State Department of Education.